Tuesday, April 26, 2011

You need to step up on a step to reach an object on a high shelf over your head. Your starting point should be anatomical position and your finishing point should be the position you are in once your hand has reached the object overhead. Specify the movements, muscles, bones, and joints involved in stepping up on the step. Explain any and all movements individually across each joint involved specifying the actions involved (i.e. flexion, extension, etc.), the muscles causing such actions, the bones being pulled on by said muscles, the types of joints involved, and how these movements collectively relate to the overall scenario/movements in this application.

Stepping up involves first flexing the leg at the hip and at the knee. The upper leg muscles are moved by muscles of the hip, buttock and abdominal cavity; the lower leg muscles are moved by muscles of upper leg; the foot muscles are moved by muscles of lower leg. The iliacus, fascia latae, and psoas major contract to flex the thigh at the hip joint, pulling the femur. The femur articulates with the acetabulum of the hip bone at the hip synovial ball-and-socket joint. This action conducts movement power to the sartorius that flexes the hip and knee, and hamstrings (extend the hip and flex the knee), which contract (while the antagonist quadriceps femoris relaxes) to flex the leg at the patella, which serves to move the power across the synovial knee joint to the lower leg, pulling the tibia and fibula. At this point, the patella tendon contracts to flex the tibia and fibula at the patella. Tibialis anterior executes dorsiflexion of the foot, and gastrocnemius contract to execute plantar flexion of the foot and flexion of knee. To place the foot on the step and lift the body weight onto the step, gluteus maximus extends and steadies the femur, while the hip ball-and-socket joint extends. To lift leg up onto the step flexion of hip, flexion at the knee, and dorsiflexion of the foot occur. To push up onto the step, extension of femur, extension at the knee, and plantar flexion of foot occur. To stabilize the femur into final position, gluteus maximus contracts.


Coleman, D. (Director). (2005). Anatomy for beginners: The anatomy of movement. (Reality TV Show). United Kingdom.

Tortora, G.J., Derrickson B. (2010).  Introduction to the Human Body:  The Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology (8th Ed.).  Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 

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